Category Archives: Internet Freedom

Battle For The Net

If you woke up tomorrow, and your internet looked like this, what would you do? Imagine all your favorite websites taking forever to load, while you get annoying notifications from your ISP suggesting you switch to one of their approved “Fast Lane” sites.Think about what we would lose: all the weird, alternative, interesting, and enlightening stuff that makes the Internet so much cooler than mainstream Cable TV. What if the only news sites you could reliably connect to were the ones that had deals with companies like Comcast and Verizon?On September 10th, just a few days before the FCC’s comment deadline, public interest organizations are issuing an open, international call for websites and internet users to unite for an “Internet Slowdown” to show the world what the web would be like if Team Cable gets their way and trashes net neutrality. Net neutrality is hard to explain, so our hope is that this action will help SHOW the world what’s really at stake if we lose the open Internet.If you’ve got a website, blog or tumblr, get the code to join the #InternetSlowdown here: https://battleforthenet.com/sept10thEveryone else, here’s a quick list of things you can do to help spread the word about the slowdown: http://tumblr.fightforthefuture.org/post/96020972118/be-a-part-of-the-great-internet-slowdown Get creative! Don’t let us tell you what to do. See you on the net September 10th!

via Battle For The Net.

Becoming a Mozillarian – Popcorn and Thimbles and Goggles, oh my, with mashups long into the night

After spending most of this HOT Sunday, one way or another, with Mozilla’s Webmaker, I’m feeling a little (lot) loopy. Which is appropriate, since most of the time was with Popcorn, which loops and stretches and jiggles various media sources every which way you want, once you figure out how it works.

It’s fairly easy once you figure it out, but the first couple of hours (AFTER watching the how-to videos AND reading all the how-tos about it) were extremely frustrating. Nomatter what I did, I never could get Popcorn to import anything from Flickr. This was a bit disappointing since my first idea involved photos from our just-ended Summer Reading program. I kept getting the message “unacceptable media” and so assumed either Popcorn didn’t like jpgs or wants only very small files (it could be a size issue; jpgs did import later).

I also could not get Popcorn to import anything from Wikipedia – all the urls I copied into the search box produced an error message. (After I FINISHED my first mashup, I noticed the Wikipedia link on the EVENTS list.)

So, two hours into the project, it still had no contents. I took a break by watching a lot of the sample Popcorn mashups. My favorites were the one about the cat foster home (which did not seem to be made from web images but from specially made video) and the one about climate change.

I decided to start with music instead of a video, and quickly discovered that Popcorn does not allow (I think – maybe it does but I never did find a preview link or tool) any meaningful previewing before importing. So I went to the Soundcloud site and did some exploring till I found a cheerful instrumental (bluegrass); then I typed the name of that piece in the search box and imported it. Somehow an image associated with a different musician came in with the music as the first image of the mashup, and I can’t figure out how to replace it, as it doesn’t show up separate from the music.

I was delighted to discover that images do NOT have to be on the web in order to use them in a project. “Image” under “Events” lets you import them from your computer. I made sure the files were small enough and then dropped jpg files from my computer into the “drag and drop here” box so I could start with pictures of the library exterior and the bookshelves. I added the gifs of book covers in the same way. It took a little more time than it should have, because it’s easy to erase an image you want to keep unless you make sure you’re selecting space on the line ABOVE where you want the new image to go, which means you have to move the new image down to the correct spot after importing it.

Adding pop-ups and text was easy. So was finding and adding animated gifs – except I did have some trouble when placing them. The double click required placed two copies of the gif most of the time; the easiest fix was to delete the zero layer, then do any resizing needed. I could not figure out how to delete individual images or text boxes or pop-ups.

You can see my first mashup at https://mariacfromval.makes.org/popcorn/2588

Popcorn is fairly new, so I’m hoping Mozilla improves it. I’d like to see much more complete how-to and help info, written as well as in video: documentation of the meanings/causes of the error messages; clear statements about the format and sizes required for importable files; clear statements about how to make searches for Flickr photo tags work or if the Flickr import is only for video; and clear statements about the requirements for url imports. I suspect that the overall process works best if one first imports either an audio file or a video file and then adds layers of still photos or gifs or text or whatever. If so, that fact also should be in the documentation.

Popcorn mashups do provide libraries yet another way to handle publicity and/or education, and they do seem useful as a tool to educate young and old about the internet. I’d like to feel confident about hosting a Webmaker party for our teens and then for older adults, to provide general internet education, but I’m not there yet. I’d have to be a lot more proficient user of all the tools.

Also I’m not there yet because I can’t answer some basic questions about the Webmaker tools that I know our teens AND adults are going to ask:

So you use Goggles remix a web page to create a custom homepage or some humor, or you make a web page using Thimble. Does the page continue to exist in your Mozilla “Maker space” where you can find and use it? Can you use it someplace else, like on your own website? How? Why not use WordPress, instead?

I’m glad Mozilla has undertaken this project. I’m going to keep plugging away with the Webmaker tools and the entire “Explore” section and try to become far more internet literate than I now am.

Yes, fellow bloggers. Your freedom of expression is at risk.

The FCC is about to make another momentous decision – whether to adopt Comcast and Verizon’s “pay to play” proposal. If the FCC doesn’t make the correct choice – and say NO – the days of a free and open internet will be over. Not because we won’t be able to write what we want – but because it will be very hard for anyone to ever find and read it! freepressdotnet Netneutralitycopy1

Net Neutrality is at stake. Net Neutrality requires providers like Verizon and AT&T to treat all lawful content – like our blog contents – the same. They can’t block us, or edit us, or discriminate against the information we send and receive, like the sites we visit or the applications we use.

Imagine what will happen if that changes!

  • Big PUBLISHERS and BOOKSELLERS like Amazon will be able to pay fees, but INDE writers and bloggers will not. Guess who moves to the slow lane?
  • Big companies like Apple and Google will be able to pay fees, but startups will be stuck in the slow lanes. Goodbye, internet innovators and small businesses.
  • Big broadband providers like Comcast will be able to play favorites and put their own shows in the fast lanes while they slow down services like Netflix.
  • The big broadband companies also will be able to more than double-bill – to charge their ever-increasing basic connection fees AND charge a fast-lane fee to content providers AND charge extra fees to users for visiting less favored websites or using certain online apps.

We can’t afford this change either as bloggers or as readers and general users of the internet. For many of us, access is already too expensive and too unreliable and too slow. We also, as CITIZENS, can’t afford to lose Net Neutrality. We can’t let the internet be something just a few corporations control.

I’m not speaking hyperbole here. Before the FCC adopted the Open Internet Order, phone and cable companies were blocking traffic they didn’t like. They already are more than double-billing in other countries around the world and have started interfering with traffic to Netflix and other sites in the U.S. This coming FCC decision is CRUCIAL.

On Jan. 14, 2014, the U.S. Court of Appeals in Washington, D.C., struck down the Federal Communications Commission’s Open Internet Order. The court made no judgment on the merits of the open Internet rules, but said that the FCC had used a questionable legal framework when it adopted them. To restore Net Neutrality, the FCC must correct this mistake and reclassify broadband as a telecommunications service…..

The law gives the FCC clear power and responsibility to protect the Internet from corporate abuse, but earlier missteps jeopardized not just its Open Internet Order, but the agency’s ability to promote affordable, universal and reliable broadband networks. The FCC’s role in preserving online privacy is also now at risk.
http://www.freepress.net/sites/default/files/resources/net_neutrality_primer_03_2014.pdf

In 2002, the FCC should not have classified broadband as an information service but should have classified it as a telecommunications service. That’s what it is. Faster than the phone lines we use for slow dial-up, and phone calls, and faxing, but serving the same communication purposes.

Help push the FCC to reclassify broadband as a telecommunication service. Then the FCC will be able to adopt strong Net Neutrality rules and keep service providers from using discriminatory practices that will hurt us all.

Make Your Voice Heard

KEEP YOUR VOICE HEARD.

Five Stars for Cory Doctorow’s Little Brother

Cory Doctorow’s Little Brother (Tor Books, 2008; my references are to the free PDF version from doctorow@craphound.com) succeeds both as a YA techie adventure novel and as an introduction to the debate over security versus the intertwined freedoms of privacy rights and the right to freedom of speech/self-expression. It also succeeds to some extent as an elementary how-to on protecting yourself from post-Patriot Act government surveillance.

I hope I’m wrong about this (please enlighten me if I am), but I doubt that Nebraska teachers are including the book in curriculum for teens under 16 or 17, if at all (and they’re likely to get flack from school boards and parents if they do, both because of the sex scenes and because of the book’s pro-freedom stance). I doubt that the schools will even have it in their libraries – and that’s a shame, because if anyone easily understands the need for privacy and self-expression and the horror of having neither, it’s a teenager. Little Brother ought to be on our library shelves and we ought to make sure our teens are reading and discussing it. It’s not dated and unfortunately is likely to stay timely.

As Doctorow says on page 1 of his introduction:

When I was 17 …..
In the Soviet Union communications tools were being used to bring information and revolution to the farthest flung corners of the largest authoritarian state the Earth had ever seen. But 17 years later, things are very different. The computers I love are being co-opted, used to spy on us, control us, snitch on us. The National Security Agency has illegally wire-tapped the entire USA and gotten away with it. Car rental companies and mass transit and traffic authorities are watching where we go, sending us automated tickets, finking us out to busybodies, cops and bad guys who gain illicit access to their databases. The Transport Security Administration maintains a “no-fly” list of people who’d never been convicted of any crime, but who are nevertheless considered too dangerous to fly. The list’s contents are secret. The rule that makes it enforceable is secret. The criteria for being added to the list are secret. It has four-year-olds on it. And US senators. And decorated veterans, actual war heroes.

It’s always been and probably always will be a constant battle to maintain freedom of speech/expression because the powers that be, whoever/whatever they are, always benefit from making sure that only they, not investigative reporters or whistle-blowers or your average rebellious young people, have it. Freedom of speech and open access to information are dangerous to those who want power and profit only for themselves, because information is powerful and the freedom to express yourself is powerful, especially if you do it well. The same goes for privacy rights – they’re dangerous to the powers that be because the lack of them gives others so much more power to terrorize and completely silence us.

As the narrator, Marcus Yallow (w1n5t0n, later M1k3y), says on p. 22, the right to privacy is not important because you need to conceal shameful acts. “It’s about doing something private. It’s about your life belonging to you. They were taking that from me, piece by piece.” If we can’t have and maintain personal boundaries that others have no right to breach, we’re left feeling naked and powerless and vulnerable to abuse, even when we have done nothing wrong – and we really then ARE powerless and vulnerable to abuse.

One of my favorite passages is the narrator’s discussion of the Paradox of the False Positive (p. 47-48), because it explains so well why collecting data on everything eradicates privacy while it allows threats to citizens from those with access (legal and illegal) to the data but does NOT protect citizens against terrorism. Another favorite passage is Doctorow’s explanation of why he publishes free e-books under a Creative Commons (creativecommons.org) license (see the CC license on this site):

If you’re not making art with the intention of having it copied, you’re not really making art for the twenty-first century. There’s something charming about making work you don’t want to be copied, in the same way that it’s nice to go to a Pioneer Village and see the oldetimey blacksmith shoeing a horse at his traditional forge. But it’s hardly, you know, contemporary. I’m a science fiction writer. It’s my job to write about the future (on a good day) or at least the present. Art that’s not supposed to be copied is from the past.

Little Brother describes both fictional and actual tools for evading keyloggers, censorware, and other invisible monitors on the internet (and was published long enough ago to be very out-of-date, so triple check anything you use, OFTEN, to be sure what you’re using can work):

  • IMParanoid, the fictional secret instant messenger in the book, may exist under some name now but you can’t find it easily with an internet search. What you CAN find is the fascinating hacker blog, http://imparanoidnow.blogspot.com/ .
  • TOR, The Onion Router, an indie internet connection, actually exists. See https://www.torproject.org/‎ .
  • The hint that any program whose name starts with $SYS$ is invisible to the operating system may or may not be true, so renaming your Firefox browser $SYS$Firefox may or may not work. I haven’t been able to figure this out, one way or another. Anyone who knows, please send me a link to the documentation.
  • INDIE OS: Paranoid Linux is the fictional operating system in Little Brother that assumes that its operator is under assault from the government. There have been rumors about it being in development since 2008. Other systems with such goals evidently are under development or may have been developed. See http://www.reddit.com/r/linux/comments/1h2ev6/project_paranoid_linux/
  • Public and private keys to keep messages private and insure messages are from their purported author (Little Brother, p 55-56) are treated extensively in Neal Stephenson’s Cryptonomicon and described in detail in Wikipedia.
  • Tunneling (piping over DNS) is actual. See Dan Kaminsky, http://www.doxpara.com/bo2004.ppt.

I especially like these References at the end of the book and hope I can get to many of them in the not-distant future:

  • O’Reilly’s MAKE magazine (how-tos for hardware projects at home). See also http://www.instructables.com/tag/type-id/category-technology/ .
  • Ed Felten and Alex J. Halderman, Freedom to Tinker blo, http://www.freedomtotinker.com. About security, wiretapping, anticopying technology, and crypto.
  • Dan Kaminsky, http://www.doxpara.com/bo2004.ppt. About Tunneling (piping over DNS).
  • Dan Gillmor, Center for Citizen Media at Harvard and UC Berkeley, We, the Media, O’Reilly, 2004.
  • Annalee Newitz, “The RFID Hacking Underground,” Wired Magazine, (www.wirednews.com/wired/archive/14.05/rfid.html).
  • Adam Greenfield, Everyware, New Riders Press, 2006. A look at the dangers of a world of arphids.
  • Neal Gershenfeld, Fab Lab at MIT, Fab, Basic Books, 2005.
  • Bruce Sterling, Shaping Things, MIT Press, 2005. How arphids and fabs could be used to force companies to build products that don’t poison the world.
  • The Electronic Frontier Foundation, http://www.eff.org. Spends donated money to keep the Internet safe for personal liberty, free speech, due process, and the rest of the Bill of Rights. EFF also helps maintain TOR, The Onion Router, tor.eff.org. See also American Civil Liberties Union (aclu.org), Public Knowledge (publicknowledge.org), FreeCulture (freeculture.org), Creative Commons (creativecommons.org).
  • Slashdot, “News for Nerds, Stuff That Matters” (slashdot.org). Chronicles the fight for cyber liberties.
  • Wikipedia. Covers hacking and counterculture in depth and up-to-date. See both the entries and the “History” and “Discussion” links at the top of every Wikipedia page.
  • Cryptome (cryptome.org). Publishes material from Freedom of Information Act requests and from whistleblowers.
  • The Pirate Party (www.piratpartiet.se), Denmark, the USA and France in July, 2006.

5 Stars for Tom Standage’s Writing on the Wall: Social Media – The First 2,000 Years

I don’t give ‘good read’ nods very often to books on history, but I think Tom Standage’s Writing on the Wall: Social Media – The First 2,000 Years (2013, Bloomsbury Publishing, Kindle Edition) is an excellent  read – well organized, with a pleasant style, and full of interesting portrayals of important figures set in the context of their times.

The book had me from the start, with the “Introduction: Cicero’s Web.” I had a wonderful high school Latin teacher who taught Roman history, art, architecture, and mythology along with Latin grammar, Julius Caesar’s prose, Virgil’s Aeneid, and, yes, some of Cicero’s work, as well. So I loved revisiting old friends in the Introduction and “Chapter 2 The Roman Media: The First Social-Media Ecosystem” – and discovering both new facts and a new way to view those old friends and their times. I had not known about the use of graffiti on the walls of Pompeii and throughout the Roman Empire; knowing about the graffiti helped me understand both the upper class’ correspondence and everyone else’s graffiti as evidence of social networks in action, rather than “literature” in contrast with property defacement.

As Standage puts it, “social networks were the dominant means by which new ideas and information spread, in either spoken or written form” (KL 61-62)*. The scrolls and posted Acta and graffiti and subsequent “series of social-media systems that arose in very different times and places are linked by the common thread that they are based on the person-to-person sharing of information” (KL 78-79).

(*KL is my abbreviation of “Kindle Location.”)

Chapters 3 thru 8 are a romp through European, English, and American history, showing how social-media systems grew farther reaching and more complex after the advent of the printing press, with periodic cycles of censorship accompanied by harsh penalties, including death. These are chapters I will read again, looking for surprises I may have missed the first time, like the surprise I had at learning the role poetry played in court gossip and politics in both England and France. Given the myriad graduate courses I took in English Lit, and the scholarly articles I had to read, shouldn’t I have stumbled on this before? But the poetry Standage is talking about isn’t in the “canon of great poetry” — except, of course, some of it is, like John Donne’s. There is delightful stuff here about rebels from Luther to Paine, and coffee houses, and the stamp tax, and revolutions, and the need for a free press, and the glories and pitfalls of publishing.

Chapters 9 , 10, and 11 deal with the rise of mass media and the birth of digital social media much as previously discussed in my reviews of McChesney, Berkun, and Shirkey. Standage also describes the development of the internet from ARPANET. He argues that mass media is the opposite of social media, and the rise of digital social media is the re-emergence of the old social networking, with new tools to use which increase the speed and reach of our communications but serve the same purpose: to fulfill the age-old human need to form networks with others and to exchange information with them.

Now that I’ve finished the book, I find myself thinking most about content from “Chapter 1 The Ancient Foundations of Social Media: Why Humans Are Wired for Sharing.”

The last half of this chapter gives a good reprise, which I thoroughly enjoyed, of the history of written communication.

Writing evolved from using clay tokens to record quantities and was invented 5,000 years ago, by accountants. The first written documents come from the Mesopotamia, date from around 3400 B.C., and record bread and beer rations. Over the next 500 years, pictograms gave way to more abstract symbols, or ideograms, which were multiple wedge-shaped (“cuneiform”) impressions made with a stylus. Ideograms, which stand for sounds, appeared around 3100 B.C., probably to write people’s names, and led to the first general-purpose form of writing.

By 2600 B.C., cuneiform and hieroglyphic writing systems were flexible enough to record abstract ideas – hymns, religious texts, and messages. Purely alphabetic writing began in Canaanite script around 1800 B.C. For the next 1500 years, only a small number of people were literate: literacy was power, mostly limited to some of the ruling class who used it for administrative purposes. Literacy increased in Ancient Greece; the earliest true alphabet (with consonant and vowel symbols) emerged there in early 800 B.C. The addition of vowel symbols made it much easier to learn to read and write. (Those of us who struggle with Hebrew are painfully aware of the learning to read without vowel symbols.)

But it’s the earlier part of Chapter 1 that I think about most. It begins with a quote from Robin Dunbar, “Without gossip, there would be no society,” and traces the evolutionary development of the brain and language as necessary consequence of primates’ living in large groups and having to survive within a complex social structure. Given the importance of gossip (“information about common acquaintances’ control of resources, sexual activity, alliances, and disputes operating at a societal level” [KL 234-236]) to human society, I wonder at the motives for its bad reputation as ill-intentioned slander, then remember that much of that reputation is tied to misogyny (in a patriarchal culture, the dominant attitude is that men pass social information; women gossip).

Standage sites research by Dunbar frequently in this chapter. “The larger the group, the more mental processing capacity is needed to keep track of the growing web of relationships” (KL 167-168). Primates need a large brain to form alliances and coalitions, balance their own needs with those of the group, and hypothesize about others’ view of the world. “The fact that group size strongly correlates with neocortex volume suggests that the primate brain is indeed a primarily social organ” (KL 174-175).

Standage says, “Dunbar has gone so far as to suggest that the exchange of social information, rather than the need to pass on information about food sources or to coordinate hunting, was the driving force behind the development of language, because using language makes maintaining social bonds much more efficient— which in turn allows for larger (and safer) groups” (KL 222-224). “Whether or not it really did drive the development of language, the exchange of social information does seem to be the main thing for which language is used: it accounts for around two thirds of spontaneous human conversation, according to observational studies” (KL 226-227).

Given the size of the human neocortex, the average group size for humans should be 148, which Dunbar rounded to 150 (KL 188-189). This group size recurs often in human societies – the average size of a hunter-gatherer clan, earliest farming settlements, many villages recorded in the Domesday Book (KL 190-191). It is the largest group size in which everyone can know everyone else (KL 192). Below the 150-person limit, peer pressure can maintain order, because everyone knows each other (KL 196-197). The typical size of a military company is 150 (KL 197).

Primates use grooming (which is only partly hygienic and also is pleasurable) to build and maintain strong relationships with a few others from their group. Members of a grooming coalition support each other, steer members away from rivals, come to each other’s aid, etc., and they send social signals by who they groom, for how long, and so on. “The constant interplay between grooming coalitions helps resolve and prevent conflicts, knitting the group as a whole together and making all its members safer from predators” (KL 163-165).

Humans shifted from physical grooming to speech, which has three big advantages: you can talk to more than one person at a time, you can talk while doing something else, and you can find out about things you didn’t witness. Speech also lets people influence others’ opinions, share judgments about others’ trustworthiness, and let the group more easily detect members who take advantage of others, because “those who do not witness bad behavior directly will soon learn about it” (KL 216-18).

Standage says Dunbar’s research found that most people have 5 intimate real-world friends (akin to members of a grooming coalition) and another 10 close friends within their larger network of 150. Interaction on Facebook similarly concentrates within a core group, an average of 7 other people for male users and 10 for females. This core group is the digital equivalent of a grooming coalition (KL 200- 203). “Using social media is merely the most recent and most efficient way that humans have found to scratch a prehistoric itch. The compelling nature of social media, then, can be traced back in part to the evolution of the social brain, as monkeys and other primates evolved over the past thirty-five million years; in part to the exchange of gossip following the emergence of human language, around one hundred thousand years ago; and in part to the origins of writing, around five thousand years ago” (KL 124-128).

In the last paragraphs of the book (“Epilogue”), Standage says:

…..Whether or not its particular model proves to have broad appeal, the future of social media is likely to see new models based on decentralized architectures and paying customers being added to the mix.

But whatever form social media takes in the future, one thing is clear: it is not going away. As this book has argued, social media is not new. It has been around for centuries. Today, blogs are the new pamphlets. Microblogs and online social networks are the new coffee houses. Media-sharing sites are the new commonplace books. They are all shared, social platforms that enable ideas to travel from one person to another, rippling through networks of people connected by social bonds, rather than having to squeeze through the privileged bottleneck of broadcast media. The rebirth of social media in the Internet age represents a profound shift— and a return, in many respects, to the way things used to be. (KL 4221-4227).

I’ll say it again: This book is an excellent read. (And, yes, I first borrowed it from the NLC but then bought my own Kindle copy.) My thanks to Nebraska Learns 2.0 for recommending it.

P.S. There’s so much in this book, I can’t imagine it NOT being useful to a librarian or anyone who wants to know something about how today’s social media reflects our past and relates to our basic urge to communicate. Or about the history of written communication. Or about differences in attitudes toward copyright or being paid for one’s published work or why freedom of the press is important. Kind of basic to libraries,  yes?

United Breaks Guitars

United Breaks Guitars by Dave Carroll is an easy read – and if you buy the Kindle version, you get links to download free copies of the music videos Carroll made (they’re also on Youtube) to speak out about United Airline’s poor customer service.

The book also is a great follow-up to Shirky’s Cognitive Surplus because it illustrates Shirky’s point that social media can interconnect us so well, we can use them to create both personal and social change. For Carroll, social media aren’t the sources of our connections to each other but platforms that “let us experience our connectedness” (pp. 131-132). He believes that social media are about communication (p. 116) and that

 …once it sinks in that all people share an inherent connection to one another, and that longing to experience that connection forms the basis for many of our choices, everyone would be wise to take note. If we are really connected at the deepest level, then that would explain why it feels good to help others (because we’re really helping ourselves). It can also account for why it’s so frustrating to be treated badly and, if you think about it, why it feels so unpleasant to hurt someone else (because we’re really only hurting ourselves when we do). The impact of this inherent truth can be felt not only on a personal basis, but also in business. (p. 136).

Carroll also asserts that “the concept of statistical insignificance has to be one of the most destructive ideas that certain companies employ when it comes to customer service” (p. 107). I agree. The goal needs to be to get it right 100% of the time, because no customer-service failure is insignificant; every failure is worth worrying about because every customer matters (p. 107). As Carroll says, studies show that customers who have a problem and get that problem solved actually like the company better than those who never had a problem (p. 110).

 

United Breaks Guitars is the sort of book I’d like young people to read for some inspiration and encouragement to keep working for what they believe in – and for some good advice. To make something other people will want to spend time on, Carroll advises asking, “Can I make something that looks good, sounds good, and makes people want to tell their friends about it?” (p. 112). He says,

If you care that people may choose to spend some of their valuable time looking at you, your content will likely raise itself up and stand above the “clutter.” I have learned that the simple act of caring changes the outcome, and I challenge everyone to try it for themselves. It works. The beauty of caring is that it’s contagious and unlimited. (p. 178)

The advice is good for us librarians, too. Caring, quality, and a focus on good customer service make a huge difference to our patrons.